Bulgarian Agrarian Party

The troops of the Entente, having secured their numerical and technical supremacy, made a break-through in the Bulgarian positions at Dobro Pole from September 15 through 18, 1918. This speeded up the outbreak of revolutionary events which had come to a head. A considerable part of the retreating soldiers headed for Sofia with their arms to call to account the ones guilty of the imminent second national catastrophe. On September 24 the mutinous soldiers took the army headquarters in the town of Kyustendil and went on to Sofia. The government set free from prison the leader of the Bulgarian Agrarian Party Alexander Stamboliiski and his closest associate Raiko Daskalov, and sent them to reason with the soldiers. Instead of this, however, the two agrarian leaders headed the mutiny. On September 27 a republic was proclaimed in Radomir, Stamboliiski was elected president and Raiko Daskalov – commander-in-chief of the rebel army. King Ferdinand was forced to abdicate and leave the country to which he had caused immeasurable disasters and sufferings. The army of the mutinous soldiers came as far as Sofia, but it was routed there with the help of German troops.

On September 29, 1918 an armistice was signed in Salonika with the Entente. Bulgaria was occupied by the armies of the Entente. A year later a Peace Treaty was dictated to Bulgaria in the Parisian suburb of Neuilly and she was deprived of all of her newly-acquired territories – Aegean Thrace, the Strouma region, the Tsaribrod region and the region of Bossilegard, while southern Dobroudja remained under Romanian rule. The country was obliged to supply the victors with enormous quantities of food, coal, transport vehicles and was charged with an un-bearable load of reparations, coming up to the astronomical figure of 2,250 million French francs. Once again tens of thousands of refugees from the Bulgarian territories left under foreign rule swarmed into Bulgaria, which exacerbated the country’s economic and social problems.

Thus, ruled by the Austrian agent King Ferdinand and the bourgeois parties, the Bulgarian people had to live through their second national catastrophe, which was far worse than the first one.

Acute Social Conflicts

The country’s normal development was hindered by the economic backwardness ensuing from the despotic feudal system of the Ottoman Empire, the lack of signifi-cant capitals of its own, the dependence on the Great Powers which were fighting for supremacy on the Balkans and the merciless parcelling up of Bulgaria after the Treaty of Berlin. Colossal means were needed for restoring the country after its five centuries of foreign yoke, and these means were collected mainly by high taxes. The unsettled national problem necessitated the formation of a numerous army whose support was a heavy burden shouldered by the population, and the country’s economy. At the same time the Bulgarian capitalists, trying to compete with the foreign producers and having scanty material means at their disposal, subjected their workers and employees to inhuman exploitation. That is why, in spite of the doubtless economic and cultural progress achieved after the Liberation, Bulgaria was one of the most backward countries in Europe as regards the people’s living standards.

 

Unification of the Bulgarian nation

Thus, the first stage of the unification of the Bulgarian nation ended in success and the country invested all its efforts in the implementation of the next stage – the liberation of Macedonia, Aegean and Adrianople Thrace. This task, however, was far more complex and difficult to carry out for a number of reasons. The existence of a large Bulgarian state within its natural ethnical borders was not to the liking either of the neighbouring Balkan states, which were afraid of a Bulgarian hegemony on the Balkans, or of the Great Powers which had engineered the Treaty of Berlin and regarded Bulgaria as the bridgehead of Russian penetration of the Mediterranean region. Besides, there was a large Turkish population of the not yet liberated parts of the country. In Macedonia, for instance, the Bulgarians formed two-thirds of the population, whereas the remaining part consisted of Turks, Wallachians and some other minorities. The liberation of Macedonia and the above-mentioned parts of Thrace was also complicated by the near-sighted adventurist policy of the Bulgarian ruling circles and by the lamentable cir-cumstance that the Bulgarian throne was ascended in 1887 by the power-loving, vain and venturesome Austro- Hungarian agent, Ferdinand of Saxe Coburg-Goth a.

The complicated internal and international conditions in which the liberation movement of Thrace and Macedonia was placed, was reflected on its overall organization and development. The fact that the Bulgarian state could not carry out the unification by force made necessary the appearance of a powerful national- revolutionary organization in the regions still under foreign yoke, an organization which was to prepare the people for a general uprising. Previous experience was extremely helpful in this respect, and the Bulgarian patriots in Thrace and Macedonia availed themselves directly of the traditions of the internal revolutionary organization of the time of Levski, developing it further, of course, in compliance with the concrete actual needs and conditions.

Damyan Grouev

Thus in 1893 Damyan Grouev, Hristo Tatarchev and others laid the foundations in Salonika of the Internal Macedonian and Adrianople Revolutionary Organization. In the following year Gotse Delchev joined the central leadership of the organization and soon became the recognized leader of the national-liberation movement in Macedonia and the Adrianople region. The activities of the organization were guided by the democratic and internationalist ideas of Karavelov, Levski and Botev and the influence of scientific socialism was strongly felt in it. Many of the leaders, with Nikola Karev at the head, were socialists, while Gotse Delchev himself had read socialist literature and had associated with socialists during his study at the Sofia Military School. The founders of the revolutionary organization came from among the people, were alien to bourgeois chauvinism and had republican convictions. That is why they followed their own path and had all the reasons not to trust the Bulgarian monarch and his obedient governments.

 

Exploit of Botev’s

The epilogue of the April epopee was the exploit of Botev’s detachment. As soon as he heard about the up-rising, Botev recruited a detachment of 200 courageous revolutionaries and took Nikola Voinikovski, who has served in the Russian army, for his military adviser. On May 17, 1876, disguised as ordinary market-gardeners, the revolutionaries, divided in groups, boarded the Austrian packetboat Radetzki at different Romanian ports on the Danube. When the boat approached the village of Kozlodoui on the Bulgarian bank, the ‘market gardeners’ changed quickly into their uniforms of dapper revolutionaries and took possession of the boat, forcing the crew to enable them to disembark on the Bulgarian bank. As soon as Botev and his comrades descended on the bank, they kneeled down before the admiring eyes of the passengers and piously kissed the soil they had come to shed their blood for. From there the detachment set out for the Balkan Range, but the uprising had already been quelled, whereas the Vratsa district had not risen at all. After several fierce battles with the far superior Turkish forces, the detachment reached the Balkan Range near the town of Vratsa (Mounts Kamarata, Koupena and Okolchitsa near the Peak Vola) where it was surrounded on all sides by Turkish troops. Throughout the day on May 20, the revolutionaries kept repelling the attacks of the Turkish infantry and Circassian cavalry. When evening fell and the battle was already ending, a fatal bullet pierced Botev’s heart. In order to make their escape easier, the detachment broke into small groups and thus ended its existence as a military unit.

Liberation

The glorious April 1876 Uprising of the Bulgarian people ended in defeat, but it became a prelude to the people’s liberation. In the summer and early autumn of 1876 the Bulgarian question became the central issue in the long drawn-out Eastern Question — that about the destiny of the Balkan peoples enslaved by Turkey and about the fate of the Ottoman Empire itself. In spite of their close proximity to the Ottoman capital and the fact that they lived on the crossroads of the Empire’s vital arteries among compact masses of Turkish colonists, the Bulgarians had had the courage to rise in a desperate, resolute struggle to overthrow the unbearable foreign rule. This earned them the sympathy and admiration of the other European nations.

The Turkish authorities did their best to obliterate all traces of their inhuman atrocities in crushing the uprising, but the traces were so numerous and so horrible that even the little which was seen by foreign diplomats and jour-nalists was sufficient to arouse the profound indignation of world democratic public opinion. Knyaz Tseretelev, Russia’s vice-consul in Plovdiv, Eugene Schuyler, secretary of the United States embassy in Constantinople, and J. MacGahan, special correspondent of the British paper Daily News, undertook in early July, i. e. two months after the uprising, an investigation in the regions of Southern Bulgaria, which had risen.

 

Karavelov and Levski

Botev shared the concepts of Karavelov and Levski as regards the tasks and goals of the Bulgarian national- liberation movement and developed them further. He was even more convincing in teaching that the Bulgarian people should rely, above all, on their own forces for the achievement of national liberation. Botev supported the idea of a Balkan federation, but added that it could be carried out, not by negotiations between the existing bourgeois-monarchic governments, but through a fraternal agreement of the free Balkan peoples.

At the end of 1874, Botev began to publish the newspaper Ztiame (Banner) with the aim of uniting the forces of the Bulgarian national-revolutionary movement which had been dispersed after Levski’s death. When an uprising broke out in Bosna and Herzegovina in June 1875, Botev took the initiative for the election of a new Central Committee. The Central Committee, headed by Botev, started feverish preparations for an uprising which was to break out that very same autumn, but the task proved too much for the Committee. Only the district of Stara Zagora attempted a more serious revolt which was promptly put down by the authorities.

The April Epopee (1876)

After the suppression of the uprising in Stara Zagora, a new Central Committee was formed in the Romanian town of Giurgiu. The country was divided into four revolutionary districts, with chief voevodes at the head of each, called Apostles. The Apostles and their assistants arrived in the districts assigned to them as early as the beginning of 1876, and immediately got down to work. They were all young and capable men, selflessly devoted to their motherland, who saw the meaning of their life solely in the struggle for Bulgaria’s liberation. They toured the country tirelessly, restored the former revolutionary committees and set up new ones, supplied arms, carried out mass propaganda about the need of an uprising, trained the members of the Committees in the art of war.

The Panagyurishte (Fourth) and Turnovo (First) revolutionary districts were best prepared for the uprising. The Apostle of the Panagyurishte revolutionary district was Panayot Volov, who subsequently voluntarily gave up his leadership in favour of Georgi Benkovski, his first assistant, who imposed himself with his inexhaustible energy, strong will, resolve and outstanding qualities of an organizer. Almost the entire population in the district took part in the preparation of the uprising. The people sold their land and livestock in order to buy arms, women were sewing uniforms for the insurgents and were embroidering banners, baking rusks and making cartridges for their rifles. Secret mobilization lists were drawn up, a detailed plan of action was mapped out. On April 14, 1876, a national assembly was convened in the Oborishte locality in the mountains, not far from Panagyurishte, which was attended by 56 representatives of the secret committees in the district and by over 200 assistants and armed guards.

Spaghetti with Turkey meat sauceingredients

INGREDIENTS

1 lb ground turkey

1, 28-ounce can tomatoes, cut up

1 cup finely chopped green pepper

1 cup finely chopped onion

2 cloves garlic, minced

1 teaspoon dried oregano, crushed

1 teaspoon black pepper

1 lb spaghetti

non-stick cooking spray

 

1- Spray a large skillet with non-stick spray coating. Preheat over high heat. Add turkey; cook, stirring occasionally, for 5 minutes. Drain fat.

2- Stir in tomatoes with their juice, green pepper, onion, garlic, oregano, and black pepper. Bring to boiling; reduce heat. Simmer, covered, for 15 min¬utes, stirring occasionally.

3- Remove cover; simmer for 15 minutes more. (For a creamier sauce, give sauce a whirl in a blender or food processor.)

4- Meanwhile, cook spaghetti according to package directions; drain well. Serve sauce over spaghetti with crusty, whole-grain bread.

NUTRITION CONTENT

Per Serving

Makes 6 servings

calories: 330

total fat: 5g

saturated fat: 1.3g

carbohydrates: 42g

protein: 29g

cholesterol: 60mg

sodium: 280mg

dietary fiber: 2.7g

 

BAKED PORK CHOPS

INGREDIENTS

6 lean center-cut pork chops, ½ inch thick

1 egg white

1 cup evaporated skim milk

¾  cup cornflake crumbs

1 ¼  cup fine dry bread crumbs

2 tablespoons Hot ‘n Spicy Seasoning

½  teaspoon salt

nonstick spray coating

1- Trim all fat from chops.

2- Beat egg white with evaporated skim milk. Place chops in milk mixture; let stand for 5 minutes, turning chops once.

3- Meanwhile, mix together cornflake crumbs, bread crumbs, Hot ‘n Spicy Seasoning and salt. Remove chops from milk mixture. Coat thoroughly with crumb mixture.

4- Spray a 13-inch x 9-inch baking pan with nonstick spray coating. Place chops in pan; bake in 375° oven for 20 minutes. Turn chops; bake 15 minutes longer or until no pink remains.

NUTRITION CONTENT

Per Serving

Makes 6 servings

calories: 186

total fat: 4.9g

saturated fat: 1.8g

carbohydrates: 16g

protein: 17g

cholesterol: 31mg

sodium: 393mg

dietary fiber: 0.2 g

Bulgarian Cuisine is one of the best

The best way to try Bulgarian cuisine, you have to come to Bulgaria, you have to find a nice automatic restaurant and try it. If you think it’s going to be difficult to do so, you have to see how easy it is. Please visit holidays to Bulgaria which is the great website about Bulgaria.

HOT’N SPICY SEASONING

INGREDIENTS

A cup paprika

2 tablespoons dried oregano, crushed

2 teaspoons chili powder

1 teaspoon garlic powder

1 teaspoon black pepper

1/2 teaspoon red (cayenne) pepper

1/2 teaspoon dry mustard

Mix together all ingredients. Store in airtight container. Makes about 1h cup.

SUCCOTASH

INGREDIENTS

10-ounce baby lima beans (frozen)

2 tablespoons margarine (such as Promise™ 60% spread)

10-ounce whole kernel corn (frozen)

10-ounce cut okra

15-ounce canned tomatoes (undrained)

1/2 cup chopped onions

Tabasco sauce to taste

Salt and black pepper to taste

1- Combine lima beans, margarine, corn, tomatoes, onions, Tabasco sauce, salt, and pepper in a pan.

2- Bring to a boil, reduce heat, and simmer for 20 minutes.

3- Add okra and cook for 10 more minutes.

This recipe is packed with fiber. Fiber is the part of plant foods that your body can’t digest. Beans, most fruits and vegetables, whole grain products, and nuts and seeds are good sources of fiber. Soluble fiber can help lower cholesterol. It also slows down digestion so that the body can absorb more nutrients and better control blood sugar levels. Insoluble fiber helps you get rid of waste and keeps you regular.

NUTRITION CONTENT

Per Serving

Calories: 146

Total fat: 3.44g

Saturated fat: 0.77g

Carbohydrates: 26.05g

Protein: 5.89g

Cholesterol: 0mg

Sodium: 363mg

Dietary fiber: 6.16g

NEW ORLEANS RED BEANS

INGREDIENTS

1 lb dry red beans

2 quarts water

½  cups chopped onion 1 cup chopped celery 4 bay leaves

1 cup chopped sweet green pepper

3 tablespoons chopped garlic

3 tablespoons chopped parsley

2 teaspoons dried thyme, crushed

1 teaspoon salt

1 teaspoon black pepper

1- Pick through beans to remove bad beans; rinse thoroughly. In a 5-quart pot, combine beans, water, onion, celery, and bay leaves. Bring to boiling; reduce heat. Cover and cook over low heat for about FA hours or until beans are tender. Stir and mash some of the beans against side of the pan to thicken the mixture.

2- Add green pepper, garlic, parsley, thyme, salt, and black pepper. Cook, uncovered, over low heat until creamy, about 30 minutes. Remove bay leaves.

3- Serve over hot, cooked brown rice, if desired.

NUTRITION CONTENT

Per Serving

Calories: 171

Total fat: 0.5g

Saturated fat: 0.1g

Carbohydrates: 32g

Protein: 10g

Cholesterol: 0mg

Sodium: 285mg

Dietary fiber: 7.2g