From the sixth century B.C. the widespread use of iron in japanese Uttar Pradesh and western Bihar facilitated the formation of enormous territorial states;, Due to iron weapons the warrior class now performed an necessary half. The brand new agricultural instruments and implements enabled the peasants to supply way more foodgrains than they required for consumption The additional product could possibly be collected by the princes to satisfy theii army and administrative’ wants! The excess may be made out there to the cities which had sprung up within the sixth century B.C These materials benefits naturally enabled the folks to stay to their land, and likewise to develop at the price of the neighbouring areas. The rise ‘of enormous states with cities as their base of operations strengthened the territorial concept Folks owed sturdy allegiance to the janapada or the territory to which they belonged and to not the jana or the tribe to which they belonged.
Within the age of the Buddha we discover 16 giant states known as mahajanapadas. They had been largely located north of the Vindhyas and prolonged from the north-west frontier to Bihar. Of those, Magadha, Kosala, Vatsa and Avanti appear to have been significantly highly effective. Starting from the east we hear of the dominion of Anga which lined the trendy districts, ofMonghyr and Bhagalpur. It had its capital at Chanipa, which exhibits indicators of habitation from the sixth century B C. Finally the dominion of Anga was swallowed by its highly effective neighbour Mrigadha,
Magadha embraced the trendy districts of Patna, Gaya and components of Shahabad, and develop to be the leacling state of the time. North of the Ganga within the division :of Tirhut was the state of “the Vajjis which included eight clans. However essentially the most highly effective had been the Lichchhavis with their capital a,t Vaisali which is equivalent with the village of Basarh in $e district of Vaisali. The Puranas push the antiquity of Vaisali to a a lot ancient times, however archaeologically Basarh was not settled sooner than the sixth century B.C.,
Additional west we discover the dominion of Kasi with its capital at Varanasi Excavations at Rajghat present that the earliest habitation began round 700 B C, and town was enclosed by mud-walls within the sixth century B.C. At first Kasi seems to be essentially the most highly effective of the states, however finally it needed to undergo the facility of Kosala. ‘