ON THE MORALS OF KINGS

TALE I.

I’ve heard, sure monarch having commanded a captive to be put-to loss of life, the poor wretch, in a match of despair, started to abuse and reproach the King, in his personal language ; in line with the saying, ‘ Whosoever washeth his Kurds of life, utteretli no matter is in his coronary heart.’ “ A person with out hope speaketh boldly; because the cat, when pushed to despair, seizeth the canine: within the time of want, when it’s not possible to flee, the hand graspeth the sharp-edged sword.” The King requested, “ What doth he say?” One of many Viziers, who was of a benevolent disposition, replied, “ zero, my lord,” he mentioned, “the Almighty befriendeth him who stifleth his anger, and is merciful to his fellow creatures.”

The King; had compassion on him, and spared Ms life. Anotlier Vizier, of a opposite mood, mentioned, “It becometh not individuals of our rank to talk any factor however reality within the presence of monarchs ; that man reviled the King, and spoke indecently.” The King was displeased at his speech, and mentioned, “I’m extra glad with that falsehood than with this reality, which you could have uttered ; as a result of that was nicely supposed, and that is based on malignity: and the sages have declared, that falsehood, combined with good recommendation, is preferable to reality tending to excite strife. When a king is guided by the recommendation of one other, woe be unto him if he speaketh any factor however good. On the portico of the corridor of Feridoon was written, ‘ The world, zero my brother, continueth to not anybody; place your affections on the Creator of the universe, and that may suffice.

Make no reliance, neither relaxation upon the dominion of this world ; seeing what number of like your self it hath nourished and killed. When the pure soul is about to depart, what’s the distinction between expiring on a throne or on the naked floor? ’ ”

TALE II.

One of many Kings of Khorasan noticed in a dream Sultan Mahmood Sebuktegeen, an hundred yearsafter his loss of life, when the entire of his physique had fallen into items and develop into mud, excepting his eyes, which moved within the sockets, and seemed about. All of the philosophers have been at a loss to elucidate the which means, excepting a Durwesh, who, after making his obeisance, mentioned, “ He’s nonetheless trying about, as a result of his kingdom is possessed by others.” Many males of renown whom they’ve buried within the floor, haven’t left any traces of their existence on the floor of the earth. That outdated corpse which that they had deposited within the grave, his mud is so decayed that not a single bone of him stays. The completely happy title of Nushirvan nonetheless exists by his liberality, though an extended season hath elapsed since his departure. Do good, zero man, and account your life as acquire, earlier than the report is unfold that such a one isn’t any extra.

 

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OK SOME FOREIGN PEASANTS

I remorse, from the sensible in addition to the creative perspective, the threatened disappearance of native colouring, as emphasised by the attribute costume of the individuals, for I’m satisfied that the adoption of a uniform fashion of gown by a neighborhood tremendously furthers the reason for neatness and financial system.

No alternative being afforded for the show of non-public dangerous style, extravagance is discouraged, and the spick and span are virtues which can distinguish the cautious from the slatternly, and reveal a lot to the scholar of character. A love of color and private adornment is inherent within the human race, and it’s to be regretted that the relentless advance of commerce is chargeable for the blotting out of a rustic’s individuality, and decreasing all locations to the identical lifeless stage of monotony.

Differing barely however distinctly with the locality, the gown of the peasants of Brittany is second in curiosity to none in Europe. This truth, coupled with an instinctive conservatism widespread to those that “go all the way down to the ocean in ships,” is, little doubt, accountable for the tenacity with which the Bretons cling to their nationwide costume, bearing it with them once they to migrate and donning it on gala events within the new land.

Peculiar to the peasant of Bignon is a white flannel petticoat, the hem surmounted by a scarlet band. Pleated on the waist, it joins a bodice normal from vivid crimson fabric, which inserts carefully as much as the throat and is edged with black velvet embroidered in varied colored worsteds, turned- again cuffs to match ending the tight elbow- sleeves ; whereas the apron, in a darkish tone of mulberry, fastens by way of a sash tied in a bow on the aspect. Protecting the pinnacle is a small cap of white linen, which serves as basis for a conical erection contrived from a rough starched texture resembling brown holland. To that is hooked up a pair of lengthy flaps, which will be pinned up or left hanging in accordance with the style of the wearer. The well-to-do possess a necklace of amber and black beads, and a gold and ebony crucifix suspended from a slender black velvet ribbon.

If gown be an outward and visual signal of character, then ought to the individuals of Quimper be the gayest of the homosexual. The costume of the district consists of a laced jacket with tight elbow-sleeves, supplemented by full white ones which attain to the wrist, and a brief petticoat of ample proportions. Blue is a favorite shade for each corsage and skirt, that are often glorified by the addition of crimson and gold lace. Blue and pink encourage the sleeves, the beneath ones being of white, tied, au poignet, with yellow ribbon. The chemisette shows a multi-coloured collar, and the apron is in a vivid tone of orange.

 

Committed and condoned

Though it has not been acknowledged that probably the most audacious actor ever ventured to play Hamlet in a tall hat, solecisms no much less grave have within the way back been dedicated and condoned, even applauded. Think about Othello addressing the “ most potent, grave, and reverend signiors ” of sixteenth-century Venice in a stiff-skirted coat, breeches and waistcoat of the English vogue of George II.’s day, with a full-bottomed wig, a three-cornered hat, and a black face !

But that was how Garrick dressed the half, and, however, thrilled his viewers to enthusiasm ; while good-looking Spranger Barry gained even Colley Cibber’s applause when he acted the dusky Moor wearing a full go well with of gold-laced scarlet, a small cocked hat, knee breeches, and silk stockings ! Then, image Macbeth, as Garrick performed him, in a 1750 go well with of black silk, and silk stockings and footwear, with buckles at his knees and toes, and a tie wig, or within the scarlet and gold-laced uniform ol a British common of George III.’s reign!

And fancy Girl Macbeth in huge hooped petticoats and big flounces, as Mrs. Yates dressed her; but, when she mentioned, “ Give me the daggers,” and took them in her fingers, as an outdated print exhibits her doing, nobody within the viewers recorded a thought that the motion was incongruous with the costume, or the costume with the tragedy. What a distinction to the very good inexperienced and gold glories of the costume of Miss Ellen Terry’s Girl Macbeth, immortalised by Sargent ! However there was no try in these days to present the audiences something higher. When Benjamin West requested Garrick why he didn’t provoke reform in stage-costume, his reply was that the general public wouldn’t permit it. “They might throw a bottle at my head,” added the nice actor, and he discovered it simpler to elude the bottle not less than, that exact bottle.

John Kemble we’re indebted

I imagine it’s to John Kemble we’re indebted for the primary cautious research of dressing a component on its deserves, though he didn’t permit himself too close to an method to accuracy, lest, as he mentioned, the general public ought to name him in disgust “an antiquary.” So he didn’t hesitate, in taking part in Macbeth, to put on a fantastic bonnet of the 42nd Highlanders the Black Watch. However when Sir Walter Scott noticed this, he was so shocked on the anachronism that he plucked out the massive plume and changed it with a single broad eagle’s feather, the time-honoured image of the Highland chieftain.

 

In old Japan social distinctions

In previous Japan social distinctions have been drawn all the time, and there was no crossing the road of demarcation. Society was divided into 9 grades.

The princes, or Daimios, the nobles, or Samourai, the clergymen, and the navy composed the primary 4. These have been entitled to hold two swords, whereas the mental class, which numbered docs in its ranks, was allowed one. The rest, together with legal professionals, have been debarred the privilege of bearing arms.

From the age of seven the son of a Samourai appeared in public carrying the 2 swords dis-tinctive of his rank. They have been small, in fact, as acceptable to his measurement and energy, however have been in any other case excellent in each element.

Regardless of rigorously-observed social divisions, all lessons wore the identical outer garment, the distinction being within the supplies employed. Till the inflow of Europeans made its levelling affect felt, using silk by any however the the Aristocracy was strictly prohibited. The article of apparel widespread to each sexes of the neighborhood was the kimono, a unfastened, flowing wrap which opened down the centre and crossed over on the breast, the place on males it was held in place by a slim belt, whereas ladies wore a large sash neatly folded and tied in an elaborate bow behind. Though the sleeves have been immensely huge and hung in deep factors, solely a small opening was left for the hand to cross by way of, the rest being joined collectively to function pocket. Etiquette exacting that what a visitor couldn’t eat he ought to take residence, the superfluous dainties have been rigorously enveloped in paper and deposited within the roomy sleeves.

Handkerchiefs have been of tissue paper, and have been carried within the belt; whereas no Japanese, of both intercourse or any rank, from the Mikado downwards, would consent to even a momentary separation from his or her fan.

Masculine costume consisted

Masculine costume consisted of tight trousers to the calf and the unfastened, spherical shirts, which have been customary from white materials for the folks and from greyish-blue silk for the the Aristocracy; and labourers displayed on theirs the insignia of their particular craft or of the company to which they belonged. Widespread to all lessons have been excessive wood clogs and sandals of plaited straw. Peculiar to the aristocracy and sure regiments, notably the archers, have been brief trousers of brilliantly-coloured silk, reduce so immensely huge as to recommend the petticoats of a ballet lady. On ceremonious events the toes and legs have been left naked. Stockings have been reduce out of cotton, or stuff, neatly seamed up the again, and have been made with a division on the nice toe for the thong of the sandal. On the entire, subdued shades and darkish colors predominated, the Japanese being distinguished by the quiet class of their style.

 

The practice of wearing masks

The observe of carrying masks, by non-public people in on a regular basis life, began, as did the style for dominoes, in Venice. There the black satin and velvet masks, nonetheless worn at fancy-dress balls and through Carnival time, first obtained, to be enthusiastically adopted in France and England just a little afterward. Within the latter nation, nonetheless, the usage of the masks by no means degenerated into an abuse as in France, though masks turned so trendy within the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, that society girls deemed them a necessary accent to the toilette. They weren’t at all times worn : generally they had been carried within the hand and held as much as the face solely when essential. The unique elected to look masked on the theatre and different public locations.

However the common carrying of masks turned such a public menace and incentive to crime that in 153 5 an edict was issued in France prohibiting the style excepting throughout Carnival time. Beneath Henry IV. the privilege was restricted to the the Aristocracy, and it was made a capital crime for any commoner to don a masks.

With Louis XIII. the masks fell into non permanent abeyance, solely to be revived with renewed vigour underneath his successor. The primary event upon which Louis XIV. appeared in a masks was on the Palais Cardinal in January 1656. From that date till January 1668 he was an enthusiastic supporter of the vogue. The style, prevalent in 1650, of ladening masks with superfluous trimming was of however brief period. Whereas the craze lasted a ruching of lace adorned the highest, a lace frill the underside, and the eyes had been encrusted with numerous decorations to such an extent that girls, descending from their carriages, had been obliged to be led, it being not possible for them to see. The preposterous vogue impressed Scarron’s ditty :

Dirai-je remark ces fantasques

Oui portent dentelles a leurs masques En chamarrent les trous des yeux

Croyant que leur masque en est mieux.

Like its affiliate the domino

Like its affiliate the domino, the masks progressively pale away with the passing of the eighteenth century. In Italy it loved the longest and most undisputed sway. There it was worn by all members of the group, together with the clergy. The Council of Ten, the Inquisitors, and the members of the Holy Workplace usually, each in Italy and Spain, had been carefully masked when employed upon the train of their horrible capabilities.

Sure unwritten however common and indisput- in a position legal guidelines rule the carrying of masks. Whether or not worn privately or in public, its disguise has always and in all international locations been revered as inviolably sacred. To the masked the best extravagance of language and gesture is permitted. He’s allowed to take pleasure in acrid personalities and proclaim scathing truths which, even when addressed to the monarch himself, go unrebuked. To strike a masks is a critical offence, whereas in no class of society, nonetheless degraded, would anybody dare to unmask a lady. One more prerogative entitles the masked to ask any lady current, whether or not masked or not, to bounce with him, etiquette decreeing that the queen of the land could not declare exemption from this rule. Expensive to romance is the masked highwayman, who flourished till the arrival of railways robbed him of his occupation ; and a grim determine is ever the masked headsman.

MADAME DE POMPADOUR

Madame de Pompadour represented in her cen-tury every little thing that was most lovely, most fascinating, and most alluring, and she or he performed her half as pioneer of vogue with a fierce, reckless enthusiasm, and, from the crown of her rolled hair to the tip of her embroidered sneakers, expressed conclusively the prodigal and the beautiful. Upon her toes she bestowed appreciable consideration, and slender pointed sneakers had been amongst her improvements ; she would have them decked with each conceivable conceit, and kick her purple heels in defiance of public opinion. A pair of her sneakers are even now saved within the Museum at Cluny, and these are embroidered in a design of inexperienced foliage, outlined with silver, clasped with silver buckles glittering with outdated paste. Followers additionally had been amongst her weaknesses ; she had these of each dimension and form, with lengthy handles which couldn’t be folded, and mounts of carved and embellished ivory, a few of her Chinese language followers being value a small fortune.

Mrs. Delany’s letters could be the basis for a liberal schooling within the artwork of costume as practised in England within the eighteenth century, and her description of Girl Huntingdon’s costume at a Court docket ball is as vivid as outstanding, reflecting without delay credit score on the Boswell and the inspiration.

Petticoat was of black velvet

Her petticoat was of black velvet embroidered with chenille, the sample a big stone vase full of ramping flowers, which unfold virtually over the breadth of the petticoat from the highest to the underside ; between every vase of flowers was a sample of gold shells and foliage embossed and most closely wealthy. The robe was white satin embroidered additionally with chenille combined with gold, no vase on the sleeve, however two or three on the tail; it was a most laboured piece of finery, the sample a lot properer for a stucco staircase than the attire of a woman.

She additionally writes the outline of a costume she goes to put on on the wedding ceremony of Princess Anne (George II.’s eldest daughter) and Prince William of Nassau and Orange in 1734.

I’ve obtained my wedding ceremony garment prepared ; ’tis a brocaded lutestring white floor, with nice ramping flowers in shades of purples, reds, and greens. I gave 13 shillings a yard : which appears higher than it describes, and it’ll make a present. I shall put on it with darkish purple and gold ribbon, and a black hood for decency’s sake.

 

Serviceable shape and virtue of concealment led

Its serviceable form and advantage of concealment led to the common adoption of the domino, till it truly grew to become as a lot an establishment because the toga of historic Rome. Clad in its all-enveloping folds, the hood drawn nicely ahead and the face masked, the domino shaped an excellent gown for intrigue, love adventures, conspiracy, ball, rout, procession, and night put on normally over a gala costume. It owed its first entry into le tnonde o’u I’on s’amuse to these Venetian orgies and wild midnight revels inspired by the Council of Ten as a method whereby the eye and energies of the youth of the capital of the Adriatic is likely to be diverted from politics.

When the homosexual world made the domino its personal, style decreed that it ought to retain its authentic form, and this it has continued to do down to the current. The identical conservatism didn’t prolong to color. As a matter of reality it has, at one time and one other, appeared in all shades, and in each acceptable number of texture, lined or unlined ; in two or extra tones, self-coloured, trimmed, or plain, luxurious or extreme, based on the tastes and inclination of the wearer.

A person’s domino, as typical of to-day as of 5 hundred years in the past, consists of a protracted, ample gown of scarlet cashmere gathered right into a plain yoke piped with satin. Three small cashmere buttons fasten it snugly from the throat downwards, and satin ribbon ties it throughout the chest. The peaked hood is lined with satin and weighted with a heavy silk tassel, and over the shoulders falls a brief, pleated cape. Of the “ angel ” order, the broad, pointed sleeves are turned again to permit a slender glimpse of satin, the fold held in place by a wire loop and a diminutive gold button sewn to the underneath arm seam instantly above the wrist. That the spiritual origin of the domino was by no means overlooked is illustrated by the anecdote of the dissipated younger reveller who, leaving a masked ball within the gray daybreak, was met by an indignant father, who proceeded to load him with reproaches with reference to his dissolute mode of life. After listening for a while in filial silence, the son made the witty reply :

Beati qui moriuntur in Domino From Italy the style of carrying dominoes unfold to France, and thence to England. In Paris the vogue reached its top underneath Louis XIII. and Louis XIV. Throughout the reigns of each monarchs, and extra particularly the latter, masquerades and masked balls have been the favorite amusements of the Court docket. Many entertainments got at which dominoes have been obligatory for males, the King alone being exempt from this rule. Louis XIV. usually elected to look in a white domino of clear muslin which merely veiled, with out in any manner concealing, the gala gown beneath. Dominoes at this era have been richly trimmed, and contrived from expensive supplies.

 

The Mordvine women

The Mordvine girls, if married, have the privilege of carrying a excessive cap labored in colored threads, with flaps hanging down on the again, adorned with chains and pendent fringes. The linen petticoats and aprons present a lot embroidery of purple and blue and lots of fringes, and tassels and beads grasp down behind.

Linen and ribbons, embroidery and colored worsted, are the frequent options of clothes in all of the villages, and the plait of hair, with strings of coral and ribbon, afford the younger woman some alternative for coquetry ; and at Kirguise there’s a head-dress specifically worthy of be aware. Three or 4 yards of fabric are positioned on the pinnacle, with the ends hanging on both facet of the face, and over that is sure one other stuff to type a turban, the hair being plaited in two and introduced up over the pinnacle to fall down once more over the ears.

In Cracow the open shirt is decked with collar and wristbands tied with ribbons, and over it is a tunic reaching to the knee, mounted in entrance, and held by a girdle ornamented with copper studs. The cap of material bordered with fur is frequent on this district as in lots of others.

The costume of the Saxon peasants close to Dresden bears a suggestion of pleasure in its multi-coloured particulars. They put on darkish petticoats with white jackets and aprons ; and around the neck a scarlet handkerchief, the ends of which seem beneath the jacket, and an enormous frill tied with a big blue bow in entrance and a big crimson one on the again. The hair is kind of hidden by a closely-fitting cap of crimson with a white border, or a colored handkerchief is pinned tightly spherical the pinnacle, and massive bows are positioned on the again.

The lads within the Tyrol put on quick coats

The lads within the Tyrol put on quick coats, bordered and lined with a vivid color, they usually present their polychromatic prejudices additional of their vests of inexperienced, yellow, or scarlet, striped with black and white. Their quick general trousers attain to their naked knees, and are ornamented with designs in white thread, and their inexperienced felt hats are conical in form, with slender brims, flaunting a bunch of colored ribbons on one facet.

The costume worn by the ladies could be very fairly, displaying a yellow or purple stomacher and darkish bodice, worn over 9 or ten full quick petticoats in several colors. The aprons have colored borders, and a black handkerchief is crossed over the bosom beneath the stomacher, fur being permitted to trim the sleeves when lengthy ; however with the quick sleeve the white frill places in an look on the elbow, and black mittens embroidered in colors cowl the palms and arms.

 

In Switzerland black is allowed on festival garb

In Switzerland black is allowed on competition garb, and on Sundays the ladies put on black within the mornings and alter to colors within the night. Within the Berne Canton the ladies normally show a black lace cap, formed like a fan and tied beneath the chin, accompanying this with lengthy inexperienced gloves ; and in on a regular basis life their costume contains a blue or black petticoat reaching to the ankles,

scolloped on the border with purple or white, accomplished with a white chemisette excessive to the throat, with full brief sleeves revealed beneath a brief sleeveless jacket. On their heads are straw hats, and on their legs and ft purple stockings with black clocks and heel-less footwear, and their hair is worn hanging down in two lengthy plaits.

Costume has by means of the ages been allowed to indicate the married or single state of its wearer. In Rome the purple-bordered toga and the segmentum—regarding which there was some dialogue, because it has been individually de-scribed as a necklace, a fringe, and an embroidered ribbon—would grace the matron. The Roman bride wore a purple veil or flamen on her wedding- day ; and in Greece the married lady parted her hair in entrance in a unique trend from that of the maids ; and to today in some elements of the Grecian Islands brides put on the flame-coloured veil, and observe the customized of placing a patch of gold-leaf on the face. The trendy bride of Corfu illustrated at web page 126 is carrying a skirt of purple and an apron of blue, and a brief blue corselet buckled with gold ; her small purple velvet coat is traced with gold, and gold ornaments grasp around her neck and maintain the white chemisette throughout the bust. Ribbons entwine her hair with garlands of flowers, and over these a delicate white veil hangs to the waist, ribbons once more fluttering their class from waist to hem. .

Italy the peasants have ornaments

In numerous elements of Italy the peasants have ornaments handed down from era to generation, and as a gift to every succeeding bride an additional chain or jewel is added, forming a sentimental file of lineage which solely probably the most devastating poverty induces the possessor to half with.

The observe of weaving a wedding-veil is an outdated one, relationship from the instances of historic Greece. A bride of Attica is immortalised in a protracted flowing gown of clinging rose color, with a girdle of gold wire knotted and tasselled. Her hair is intently curled around the nape of her neck, and drawn up on the again into a large meshed web, the entrance banded with a golden fillet engraved with a Grecian key sample, whence floats a clear white veil to the bottom.

 

Tale

TALE XVII.

I used to be used to affiliate with a physique of males, whose conduct had the looks of correctness. An individual of consequence entertained very beneficial sentiments of them, and had assigned a hard and fast pension for. their assist; however considered one of them having executed one thing unbecoming the character of Dur- weshes, they forfeited his good opinion, and their market was injured. I wished, come what may or different, to acquire for my associates a restitution of the pension. I went to attend on the nice man, however the porter rudely refused me admittance. I excused him in conformity to the saying, that when you method the gate of both the Meer, the Vizier, or the Sultan, with none one to introduce you, when the canine and the porter discern that you’re poor, this seizes your collar and the opposite lays maintain of your skirt. When the nice man’s principal attendants had been apprized of my case, they performed me in with respect, and assigned me a spot of distinction ; however I humbly seated myself decrease, and mentioned, “ Excuse me, for I’m an inferior ; undergo me to seat myself within the rank of servants.” Certainly one of them jeplied, “zero God, what a tough saying is that this! In the event you seat your self on my head and eyes, I admit your gallantry, for you’re amiable.”

Summarily I seated myself, and conversed on numerous topics, until the circumstance of my buddy’s indiscretion was introduced in. I requested, “ What fault was found by my most bountiful lord that ought to have rendered his servant hateful in his sight ? To God alone be- longeth excellent greatness and benignity, who dis- covereth the crime, and but withholdeth not day by day bread.” The good man accepted of this speech, and ordered that my buddy’s stipend must be restored and the arrears discharged. I praised his generosity, made obeisance, and apologized for my boldness ; and on the time of taking depart, made the next statement : “ As a result of the temple of Mecca is the bestower of our needs, multitudes resort to it from many farsangs ; you should subsequently undergo the importunity of resembling myself, since nobody flings a stone right into a tree that hath no fruit.”

TALE XVIII.

A prince inherited from his father abundance of wealth. He opened the hand of liberality, and bestowed innumerable largesses and items on his troops and topics.

No odour points from a tray manufactured from lignum aloes : place it on the hearth that it could diffuse perfume like ambergris. In the event you want to be esteemed magnificent, be bountiful; for grain groweth not until it’s scattered. One of many courtiers inconsiderately started his admonition, saying, that “General Former monarchs gathered this treasure with labour, and saved it up towards a time of want, subsequently restrain your liberality, for occasions being in entrance and enemies on the rear, you should not deprive your self of sources towards the time of necessity. In the event you had been to lavish your treasure on the multitude, every head of a household wouldn’t obtain greater than a grain of rice for his share : why do you not precise a grain of silver from every particular person, which is able to produce you a treasure day by day? ” The prince regarded displeased at this discourse, so opposite to his personal sentiments, and he mentioned, “ The everlasting and Almighty God has made me King of those nations, that I’d take pleasure in and distribute ; I’m not a sentinel to look at the treasure.”

Karoon, who had forty chambers filled with treasure, was destroyed ; however Nowshirvan died not, having left an immortal identify.